Debunking Myths: 10 Things That Are Not True About Vikings

10 things that are not true about vikings

Vikings have long captured our imaginations with their fearsome reputation, seafaring skills, and mysterious mythology. However, many popular beliefs about Vikings are simply not true. In this article, we’ll explore some of the most prevalent myths surrounding Viking culture and uncover the truth behind these legendary figures.

Key Takeaways:

  • Many popular beliefs about Vikings are not accurate.
  • Despite their fearsome reputation, Vikings were more than just raiders.
  • Viking society was more complex than many people realize.
  • Women played significant roles in Viking culture.
  • The Viking Age was about much more than just raiding.

The Viking Horned Helmet: A Myth Exposed

Vikings are often depicted in movies and popular culture wearing horned helmets, but this is just a myth. In reality, there is no actual evidence that Vikings wore horned helmets. The idea of horned helmets may have come from ancient Greek and Roman descriptions of Scandinavian people who they encountered. However, these descriptions were not accurate and were more than likely influenced by the Greeks and Romans’ own cultural biases.

The myth of the Viking horned helmet was further perpetuated in the 19th century when Wagner’s operas featured actors wearing these helmets. The portrayal of Vikings in popular media continued to influence how people perceive them, despite the lack of historical evidence.

Archaeological evidence from Viking burials shows that they were typically buried with simple helmets made from iron or leather. These helmets did not have any horns or decorative features. The only horns that were found in Viking burials were those of animals that were buried alongside the Vikings as part of their funeral rites.

The True Nature of Viking Headgear

Although the Viking horned helmet is a myth, Vikings did have distinct headgear that they wore for various purposes. One popular helmet design was the spangenhelm, which was made of iron or bronze and consisted of several plates connected by rivets. This type of helmet provided good protection for the head and neck, and many Vikings wore them in battle.

Vikings also wore helmets with face guards or nose guards, which were designed to provide additional protection for the face. These helmets were typically made from iron, and the face guards were made from brass or bronze.

Another common type of Viking headgear was the coif, which was a type of hood made from chainmail. The coif provided protection for the head and neck, and it was worn by both men and women in battle.

In conclusion, the Viking horned helmet is a myth that has been perpetuated by popular culture for centuries. Vikings did not wear horned helmets, and there is no historical evidence to support this idea. Instead, Vikings wore a variety of different types of headgear, including the spangenhelm, helmets with face guards or nose guards, and chainmail coifs. By debunking this myth, we can gain a more accurate understanding of Viking culture and history.

Vikings Were Ruthless Savages: Dispelling the Stereotype

disproving Viking stereotypes

The popular myth of Vikings as barbaric warriors has been perpetuated for centuries, but the reality is far more nuanced. While Viking society certainly had a martial element, it was also much more complex than merely a culture of conquest and violence.

For starters, Vikings had a significant impact on art, literature, and trade, indicating a highly evolved and cultured society. Vikings produced some of the most compelling works of art in history, including the intricate designs found on the famous Viking helmets, swords, and longboats.

Viking ContributionsDispelling the Stereotype
Advanced navigational techniquesVikings were more than just violent raiders and looters. Their advanced navigational techniques allowed them to explore and settle new lands, which helped them establish trading routes and engage in commerce.
Outstanding shipbuilding skillsVikings had a sophisticated shipbuilding tradition, which allowed them to travel long distances with ease. They built ships that were both swift and sturdy, enabling them to cross rough seas and explore new lands.
Agricultural innovationsVikings were skilled farmers who developed innovative techniques to improve crop production. They used advanced plows, developed irrigation systems, and employed crop rotation to maximize yields, demonstrating that their society was far from uncivilized.

Moreover, Viking society was highly structured, with a strong emphasis on governance, law, and order. While they were known for their warrior ethos, they were also adept at diplomacy, forming alliances with other cultures and even converting to Christianity in the eleventh century.

It is clear that the image of Vikings as ruthless savages is a gross oversimplification of their society. In reality, their contributions to art, literature, and commerce showcase their highly evolved culture, while their advanced knowledge of farming, shipbuilding, and navigation demonstrate that they were far from uncivilized.

Viking Warriors Were All Men: Unveiling the Truth

viking women warriors

Contrary to popular belief, Viking society was not solely male-dominated. Women played significant roles in Viking culture, from trade and agriculture to warfare and governance.

In fact, recent archaeological evidence has indicated that women were buried with their weapons, indicating their involvement in battle. In addition, sagas and other historical accounts mention shieldmaidens and female warriors, such as Lagertha, who led her own army and fought alongside her husband in battle.

Women also held positions of power in Viking society, such as the role of the goði, a chieftain who represented a district in the Viking parliament. Women could hold this position and were also involved in other forms of governance.

While gender roles were still present in Viking society, they were more fluid than previously thought. Women were not limited to traditional domestic roles and had opportunities for leadership and warfare.

It is important to separate the myths from the facts when it comes to Viking history. The notion that all Viking warriors were men is a myth that has been debunked by modern research and historical evidence.

Vikings Were Uncivilized Barbarians: Debunking the Myth

viking history debunked

The stereotype of Vikings as uncivilized barbarians is a gross exaggeration of their true nature. In reality, the Vikings were skilled craftsmen, traders, and seafarers with a rich cultural heritage that extended beyond raiding.

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The Advanced Skills and Innovations of the Vikings

Despite popular beliefs, the Vikings were skilled in several areas, including shipbuilding, navigation, and agricultural practices. Their longships were a marvel of engineering that allowed them to explore and settle in far-flung regions of the world. The Vikings were also skilled farmers who developed innovative techniques, such as crop rotation, that significantly enhanced agricultural yields.

“Despite popular beliefs, the Vikings were skilled in several areas, including shipbuilding, navigation, and agricultural practices.”

The Viking Age also saw a great flourishing of art, literature, and music. The Vikings produced intricate metalwork, woodcarvings, and textiles that reflected their rich cultural heritage. They also had a complex system of oral storytelling that included epic poems and sagas, many of which have survived to this day.

The Complexities of Viking Society

The Vikings were a complex society with a sophisticated legal system that centered around the concept of honor. In fact, the concept of honor was so important to the Vikings that they were willing to risk everything, including their lives, to protect it. The Vikings also had a system of governance that involved local leaders, known as jarls, who were responsible for maintaining law and order in their respective territories.

“The Vikings were a complex society with a sophisticated legal system that centered around the concept of honor.”

Contrary to popular belief, not all Vikings were raiders and warriors. Many were peaceful traders who established long-lasting relationships with other cultures. This interaction led to a great exchange of ideas, goods, and technologies.

The True Nature of Viking Raiding

Although the Vikings were known for their raids, this was just one aspect of their activities. Viking raiding was often conducted as a means of acquiring resources that were scarce in their own territories. It was not a mindless activity but rather a calculated strategy aimed at securing their survival.

The Vikings were also not the only raiders of their time. Many cultures engaged in raiding as a means of acquiring wealth, including the Anglo-Saxons and the Franks. However, it is the Vikings who have become synonymous with raiding due to their success and their impact on history.

In conclusion, the Vikings were not uncivilized barbarians but rather a complex society with a rich cultural heritage. The historical evidence supports their advanced skills and innovations, as well as their complexities in society and raiding activities.

The Viking Age Was All About Raiding: Uncovering the Real Story

debunking viking misconceptions

Contrary to popular belief, the Viking Age was not solely characterized by raiding and pillaging. In fact, the Vikings were involved in a myriad of activities beyond their propensity for war and violence.

One significant aspect of Viking culture was their extensive trading network. Trading routes spanned the Norse world, with goods such as furs, amber, and slaves being exchanged for silver, textiles, and exotic spices from as far away as Baghdad and Constantinople.

Moreover, the Vikings established peaceful settlements in many parts of Europe, including Iceland, Greenland, and parts of present-day Russia and Turkey. These settlements were not only for strategic positioning, but also for agricultural purposes, with the Vikings introducing innovative farming techniques to these regions.

Further, the Vikings engaged in cultural exchanges, with many Viking warriors serving as mercenaries in foreign armies. This led to the spread of Viking art and literature, including the famous Icelandic sagas.

It is true that the Vikings conducted raids, but this was only one aspect of their complex society.

Viking Raids: A Comparative Analysis

It is important to note that while Viking raids did occur, they were not unique to Viking culture. Many groups throughout history have engaged in raiding and piracy, including the Greeks, the Romans, and the Normans.

Time Period8th-11th centuries8th-6th centuries BC753 BC-476 AD10th-12th centuries
Main TargetsEurope, Russia, North AmericaMediterranean, Black SeaEurope, Africa, Asia MinorEurope, Mediterranean
MotivationsGold, silver, slaves, territoryPlunder, territory, colonizationWealth, political power, expansionWealth, territory, conquest
LegacyLongships, Viking Age art, Viking mythologyMythology, philosophy, art, languageArt, engineering, language, lawArchitecture, literature, language

As shown in the table above, the Vikings were not unique in their motivations for raiding, nor were they the only group to leave a significant cultural legacy.

In conclusion, while the Vikings were indeed involved in raiding and pillaging, it is important to recognize that this was only one aspect of their complex society. The Vikings were involved in trade, settlement-building, and cultural exchange, and their legacy extends far beyond their reputation as “savage” raiders.

Vikings Were Dirty and Unkempt: Myth or Reality?

Viking woman washing herself in a stream

It’s a common misconception that Vikings were dirty and unkempt, with long, matted hair and beards. However, the reality is far different from this exaggerated portrayal.

In fact, Vikings placed a strong emphasis on personal hygiene, with regular bathing and hair washing. Archaeological evidence shows that they used combs, tweezers, and even ear cleaners made from animal bones.

While they may not have had access to modern dental care, Vikings were known to clean their teeth using a variety of methods, including chew sticks made from tree bark or twigs, and even quills or bird bones.

The Viking Housewife’s Guide to Cleanliness

Hygiene ItemMaterial Used
ToothbrushChew stick made from tree bark or twigs
SoapBirch ash mixed with fat
Ear cleanerAnimal bones
CombAnimal bones or antlers

Viking women, in particular, were noted for their cleanliness and grooming habits. They were responsible for maintaining the household and ensuring that everyone in the family was clean and well-fed.

The myth of dirty Vikings may have originated from their preference for simple, functional clothing made from wool or linen. This practical clothing was often dyed in bright colors and decorated with intricate embroidery, showcasing the Vikings’ skill in textile arts.

“The Vikings were far more refined than most people give them credit for. They had a deep appreciation for beauty and craftsmanship, and this extended to their personal appearance and hygiene.” – Dr. Judith Jesch, Centre for Viking and Medieval Studies, University of Nottingham

In conclusion, the common perception of Vikings as dirty and unkempt is a myth. While they may not have had access to modern hygiene products, they placed a strong emphasis on cleanliness and grooming, with a wide range of tools and techniques at their disposal.

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The Viking Religion: Beyond the Stereotypes

common misconceptions about viking culture

When people think about Viking religion, they often think of bloodthirsty deities and brutal rituals. But the reality is much more complex than that. Contrary to popular belief, the Vikings were not solely focused on warfare, nor did they only worship gods of war and destruction.

The Vikings, like many other ancient civilizations, believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses who ruled various aspects of life. For example, Freyja was the goddess of love and fertility, while Odin was the god of wisdom and poetry. The Vikings also believed in an afterlife, with warriors hoping to ascend to Valhalla, a glorious hall ruled by Odin.

But it’s important to note that the Vikings were not just bloodthirsty warriors. They had a rich and complex culture that included art, literature, and science. In fact, many Viking artifacts depict scenes from mythology, such as the famous Oseberg tapestry, which shows scenes from Norse legends.

Viking Burial Customs

One aspect of Viking religion that is often misunderstood is their burial customs. While it’s true that many Viking warriors were buried with their weapons and other possessions, not all Vikings were buried this way. In fact, some Viking burials show evidence of cremation, suggesting the belief in an afterlife.

One fascinating example is the grave of a Viking woman discovered in Birka, Sweden. This woman was buried with a full set of gaming pieces, suggesting she was an avid player. This challenges the notion that Viking women were only involved in domestic duties and had no role in society beyond the home.

The Influence of Christianity

The Vikings did not exist in a vacuum, and their religious beliefs were not static. As they traveled and traded with other cultures, they were exposed to new ideas and beliefs. One significant example of this is the arrival of Christianity in Scandinavia in the 10th century.

Many Vikings converted to Christianity, and this had a profound impact on their culture and way of life. Churches and monasteries were built, and new saints were venerated alongside traditional Norse gods. The Viking Age saw a blending of Christianity and Norse mythology, resulting in unique cultural expressions such as the Jelling stones in Denmark.


While the Vikings are often portrayed as brutal savages, the reality is much more nuanced. The Vikings had a rich and complex culture that included religion, art, literature, and science. By exploring the intricacies of Viking religion, we can gain a deeper understanding of this fascinating civilization and appreciate their historical significance.

Vikings Were Not Just Scandinavian: Expanding the Scope

Viking ship

When we hear the word “Viking,” we often associate it with Scandinavia and the Nordic countries. However, Vikings were not just limited to these regions. In fact, they explored and settled in many other parts of the world, leaving a significant impact on history. Let’s delve deeper into the far-reaching influence of Vikings beyond Scandinavia.

Vikings in England

Viking invasions of England began in the late 8th century, and by the 9th century, they had established several settlements in the region. The most famous of these settlements was Jorvik, which we now know as York. The Vikings ruled over large parts of England until 1066 when they were defeated by the Normans at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.

Interestingly, many English words have Viking roots. For example, the words “sky,” “cake,” and “window” all have Old Norse origins.

Vikings in Russia

The Vikings, known as Varangians in Russia, established settlements in what is now Ukraine and Russia. These settlements eventually evolved into important cities, such as Kiev and Novgorod. The Varangians played a significant role in the formation of the Kievan Rus, which was the first East Slavic state.

CityModern-day Location

Vikings in North America

It is believed that the Vikings established a settlement in Newfoundland, Canada, over 500 years before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas. The settlement, known as L’Anse aux Meadows, was discovered in the early 1960s. The Vikings likely traveled to North America to expand their trading routes and search for resources.

Vikings in the Middle East

It may come as a surprise, but the Vikings even established a presence in the Middle East. They traveled through Russia, down the Volga River, and eventually reached the Caspian Sea. From there, they traded with the Abbasid Caliphate and other Middle Eastern countries. Some even served as mercenaries in the Byzantine Empire.


As we can see, Vikings were not just limited to their homeland in Scandinavia. They explored and settled in many other parts of the world, leaving a lasting impact on history. By expanding our understanding of Vikings beyond the stereotypes, we gain a deeper appreciation for their influence on the world.

Viking Horn Drinking: A Myth Examined

debunking viking misconceptions

One of the most enduring images of Vikings is of them drinking from horns. From movies to Viking-themed bars, this portrayal of the Nordic people has become almost symbolic. However, this depiction is a myth.

There is no evidence to suggest Vikings drank from horns. The idea likely stems from a mistranslation in Old Norse literature. The word “horns” was used to describe the protrusions on drinking vessels made from animal horns. These vessels were used for special occasions, such as religious ceremonies or feasts, and were often intricately decorated.

Vikings regularly drank from hornsDrinking vessels made from animal horns were used for special occasions
Viking horns were large and cumbersomeDrinking vessels made from animal horns were often small and intricately decorated
Vikings exclusively used horns for drinkingVikings also used drinking horns made from wood, glass, and other materials

What’s more, drinking from horns would have been impractical for Vikings. They were a nomadic people who relied on mobility. Carrying large and cumbersome horns would have been impractical.

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In conclusion, it is a myth that Vikings regularly drank from horns. Drinking vessels made from animal horns were used for special occasions and were often small and intricately decorated. Vikings also used drinking horns made from wood, glass, and other materials.

Viking Women Wore Horned Helmets: A Fiction Disproved

viking helmet

The belief that Viking women wore helmets with horns is a common misconception fueled by popular culture. However, this is simply not true, as there is no historical evidence to support this claim. This myth has been debunked by scholars, archaeologists, and historians alike.

Viking helmets were primarily made of iron and were designed to offer protection in battle rather than to showcase an elaborate design. The horns would have been impractical in combat and would have served no real purpose, making it highly unlikely that they were a part of Viking headgear.

While there is evidence of Viking women participating in combat, they would have worn the same types of helmets as men, without any decorative embellishments. The notion of women wearing horned helmets is a modern invention that has no basis in reality.

Historical Evidence

Archaeological evidence shows that Viking helmets were simple, functional, and devoid of any artistic flourishes. The helmets unearthed by archaeologists have no horns, and there are no contemporary accounts of Viking helmets with horns.

Type of helmetDescription
GjermundbuThe only complete Viking helmet found to date, dated to the 10th century. Made of iron and has a rounded cap.
SpangenhelmA helmet made of iron or bronze. Consists of a round cap with a slightly conical shape and a nasal.

These helmets were designed for practicality and would have offered the wearer maximum protection in battle. The design was not meant to accommodate horns or other decorative elements.

Modern Interpretations

The myth of Viking women wearing horned helmets has been perpetuated by modern interpretations of Viking culture. In the 19th century, artists and writers began to portray Vikings in a romanticized and exaggerated way, often depicting them wearing horned helmets and engaging in brutal battles.

These depictions were based on artistic license rather than historical fact and contributed to the misconceptions surrounding Viking culture that we still encounter today.

The Truth About Viking Helmets

Viking helmets were functional and practical, designed to protect the wearer in battle. There is no evidence to support the idea that Viking helmets had horns or other decorative elements. This myth has been disproved by historical evidence and should be put to rest.

It is important to separate fact from fiction when it comes to Viking history, as these myths can obscure our understanding of this complex and fascinating culture.


By debunking these 10 popular myths about Vikings, we gain a deeper understanding of Viking culture and appreciate their historical significance. All too often, Vikings are portrayed as ruthless savages who rampaged through Europe. However, the reality is far more complicated.

Through our examination of the Viking horned helmet, we uncovered the truth about Viking headgear. We dispelled the stereotype that Vikings were bloodthirsty warriors, highlighting their contributions to art, literature, and trade. We also unveiled the truth about gender roles in Viking society, showing that women played significant roles in trade, warfare, and governance.

We challenged the misconception that Vikings were uncivilized barbarians, examining their advanced skills and innovations. We also explored the multifaceted nature of the Viking Age, highlighting their trading routes, peaceful settlements, and cultural exchanges.

Through our investigation into the cleanliness and grooming habits of the Vikings, we separated the reality from exaggerated portrayals of their hygiene practices. We also delved into the Viking religion, challenging the misconceptions surrounding their belief system and polytheistic worship.

Furthermore, we expanded the scope of the Vikings, demonstrating their far-reaching influence beyond Scandinavia. Finally, we examined the truth behind the portrayal of Vikings drinking from horns, uncovering the actual drinking vessels used by the Vikings and their significance in Norse culture.

In concluding, it is essential to separate fact from fiction and debunk the myths perpetuated about Vikings. Doing so enables us to gain a deeper understanding of their rich culture, their contributions to history, and their significance as a people. By debunking viking myths and revealing viking history, we can appreciate the true nature of one of the most fascinating cultures in history.


What are some common misconceptions about Vikings?

Some common misconceptions about Vikings include their portrayal as ruthless savages, their association with raiding and pillaging, and the belief that they were all men.

Did Vikings really wear helmets with horns?

No, the belief that Vikings wore helmets with horns is a myth. There is no historical evidence to support this misconception.

Were Vikings uncivilized barbarians?

No, Vikings were not uncivilized barbarians. They had advanced skills in shipbuilding, navigation, and agriculture, and made significant contributions to art, literature, and trade.

Did Viking women have significant roles in their society?

Yes, Viking women played important roles in their society. They were involved in trade, warfare, and governance, challenging the stereotype that Viking warriors were all men.

Were Vikings dirty and unkempt?

The cleanliness and grooming habits of Vikings varied, but they were not universally dirty and unkempt. While they may not have adhered to modern standards, they had their own hygiene practices.

What was the Viking religion like?

The Viking religion was polytheistic, with worshippers believing in multiple gods. Norse mythology played a significant role in their religious practices.

Did Vikings only exist in Scandinavia?

No, Vikings had a far-reaching influence beyond Scandinavia. They interacted with other cultures through trade, exploration, and settlement.

Did Vikings drink from horns?

The depiction of Vikings drinking from horns is a myth. Historical evidence suggests that they used various drinking vessels, not just horns.

Did Viking women wear helmets with horns?

No, Viking women did not wear helmets with horns. There is no historical evidence to support this misconception.


Baron Cooke has been writing and editing for 7 years. He grew up with an aptitude for geometry, statistics, and dimensions. He has a BA in construction management and also has studied civil infrastructure, engineering, and measurements. He is the head writer of

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